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The Conquest of Makkah


category: History & Biographies


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The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) stood at the door of the K’abah, holding its frame, while the Quraysh arrayed themselves in front of him in the courtyard. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) then addressed them, saying:

“There is no Allah but Allah alone; He has no associate. He has made good His promise and helped His servant. He has alone overthrown all the confederates. Lo! All the privileges and claims to retaliation and bloodwit are beneath my feet except the custody of the K’abah and watering of the pilgrims. O ye people of the Quraysh, Allah has abolished the haughtiness of paganism and the pride of lineage. Man springs from Adam and Adam sprang from dust.”

Thereafter, the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) recited the Qur'anic verses: “O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! The noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware.”(52)


The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) then asked the Quraysh, “O Quraysh, what do you think am I about to do with you?”

“We hope for the best,” they replied, “You are a noble brother, son of a noble brother.”

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said in reply, “I say to you what Yusuf (Prophet Joseph) said to his brothers – 'Have no fear this day;' (Qur'an 12:92) go your way for you are all free.”(53)

Then the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) ordered Bilal to climb on top of the roof of the K’abah and give the call for prayer. This was the first time that the chiefs and nobles of the Quraysh heard the call to prayer resounding in the valley of Mecca.

Thereafter the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) went to the house of Umm Hani bint Abi Talib, took a bath and offered eight ra’akats of prayer as a thanksgiving gesture for the victory that Allah had granted him.(54)


Fatimah, a woman of Bani Makhzum, was in the meanwhile apprehended on the charge of theft. Her clansmen approached Usama b. Zayd in the hope that the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), being well disposed towards him, might be able to intercede with him for the woman. When Usama mentioned the matter to the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), he found his expression completely altered. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to Usama, “Do you speak to me about the bounds put by Allah?”

Usama felt so ashamed that he beseeched the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), “O Messenger Allah, pray to Allah to forgive me.” In the evening, when the people convened, the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said after praising Allah.

“The people before you were destroyed because they used to overlook when a highborn or man of substances among them committed a theft but when the poor or the weak did the same they chastised him as ordained by the law. I swear by Him who holds my life that if Fatimah bint Muhammad had committed theft I would have amputated her hand.”

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) ordered to cut off the right hand of the culprit. She is reported to have sincerely repented of her sin and led a normal life after marrying a man. (Bukhari and Muslim)


Now that the victory was complete, all the citizens of Makkah were granted amnesty. Only nine persons were condemned to death. Of these was one who had been guilty of apostasy after accepting Islam, another man had deceitfully killed a Muslim while few others had been busy bringing down Islam and vilifying the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam). ‘Abdullah b. S’ad b. Abi Sarah had abandoned Islam. ‘Ikrima b. Abi Jahl so detested Islam that he had fled to Yemen. His wife became Muslim and requested from the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) to grant him immunity. ’Ikrima was the son of Abu Jahl, the greatest enemy of the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), yet he was not only pardoned but when he came back to Makkah the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) accorded him a warm welcome. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) rose to receive ‘Ikrima in such a haste that his robe fell from his shoulders.

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) was well pleased to admit ‘Ikrima to the fold of Islam. Accorded a place of honor among the Muslims, ‘Ikrima distinguished himself by his deeds of valor in the battles fought with the Apostates and the Byzantine forces.

One of these culprits was Wahshi, the slave of Jubayr b. Mu’tim, who killed the Prophet’s uncle Hamza (radiallahu 'anhu). The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) had condemned him to death but when he came to witness the truth in Allah, the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) accepted his allegiance.

There was also Habbar b. Al-Aswad who had attacked the Prophet’s daughter Zaynab (radiallahu 'anhaa). She had fallen from her litter and had an abortion. Habbar had also fled from Makkah but when he came back to accept Islam, the merciful Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) also forgave him. Among those found guilty were two singing girls, Sarah and her friend, who used to sing satirical songs denigrating the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam). When immunity was demanded for them, the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) granted them impunity from punishment and they acknowledged Islam. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. I, p. 425)


A large crowd of the citizens of Makkah who had embraced Islam assembled. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) came to Mount Safa, where one after another, the Meccans moved up to take the oath of allegiance in the hands of the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam).

The men had pledged their faith in Allah and the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), the women followed suit. Among them came the fury of Uhud, Hind b. ‘Utba, who was the wife of Abu Sufyan. She came veiled because of what she had done to Hamza.

The Prophet(sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to her, “Take your oath that you would not associate anything with Allah.”

“By Allah”, she replied. “You lay on us something that you have not laid on men.”

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said again, “And you shall not steal.”

Hind acknowledged, “I used to take a little of Abu Sufyan’s money, but I do not know if it was lawful or not.”

Abu Sufyan was present on the occasion. He intervened to say, “In so far as the past is concerned, there is no blame on you. It was lawful. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) now recognized Hind and said, “Ah! You are Hind bint ‘Utba!”

Hind said in reply, “Yes, I am, forgive me of my past deeds and Allah will forgive you.”

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) again said to her, “And, you shall not commit adultery.”

“Does a woman of noble birth commit adultery?” she inquired in reply. (Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, p. 603)

Ignoring her question, the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) further said, “And you shall not kill your children.”

Hind answered back, “We brought them up when they were young and you killed them when they were grown up. Now you and they should know better.”

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) asked her again, “And you shall not utter slanderous remarks about any body.”

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